A fully trained surgeon is a physician who, after medical school, has gone through years of training in an accredited residency program to learn the specialized skills of a surgeon. One good sign of a surgeon’s competence is a certification by a national surgical board approved by the American Board of Medical Specialties. All board certified surgeons have satisfactorily completed an approved residency training program and have passed a rigorous board examination. When a physician is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, F.A.C.S, it is a further indication of his/her qualifications. Surgeons who become Fellows of the College have passed a comprehensive evaluation of their surgical training and skills. They also have demonstrated their commitment to high standards of ethical conduct. This evaluation is conducted according to national standards that were established to ensure patients receive the best possible surgical care. **All Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgeons physicians are board certified and approved by the American Board of Medical Specialties.